Chip-Level GHz Capable Balanced Quantum Homodyne Receivers
JLT, vol. xx, no. xx, pp. xxxx-xxxx, Oct. 2022 (early access)
Dinka Milovančev, Florian Honz, Nemanja Vokić, Martin Achleitner, Fabian Laudenbach, Christoph Pacher, Hannes Hübel,
and Bernhard Schrenk
We present a design of balanced homodyne receivers suitable for quantum applications. For best noise and bandwidth performance a die-level low-parasitic photodiode together with a low-noise high-speed transimpedance amplifier are explored together with a planar lightwave circuit splitter chip serving as photomixer. Bandwidths of 750 MHz and 2.6 GHz were accomplished while maintaining optimum noise performance, as evidenced by high quantum-to-classical noise ratios of 26.8 and 18.6 dB, respectively. A common-mode rejection ratio of at least 40 dB was achieved for a frequency range of up to 1 GHz. Its application for continuous-variable quantum key distribution evaluation was evaluated by means of estimations under a strict untrusted receiver assumption, showing its potential for generating up to 43 Mbit/s secure-key rate over a reach of 10 km, whereas up to 100 Mbit/s could be supported at shorter reaches. Moreover, the high quantum-to-classical clearance values can enable high quality quantum random number generation at Gb/s rates. The multi-purpose operation of the designed balanced receivers for classical communications was examined showing a reception sensitivities of -55.8 and -52.6 dBm at 500 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s quadrature phase shift keying transmission, respectively, using the 750 MHz receiver. The faster 2.6 GHz receiver enabled 10 Gbit/s duobinary transmission at -14.8 dBm sensitivity.